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All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article. Inhaled corticosteroids ICS have been associated with decreased lung cancer risk. However, they have been associated with pulmonary infections tuberculosis [TB] and pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD.
TB and pneumonia have increased lung cancer risk. The association between post-ICS pulmonary infections and lung cancer remains unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study from to using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Because the overall prognosis of lung cancer remains poor, screening tests are recommended for patients with these conditions.
COPD is a common chronic inflammatory airway disease and is associated with lung cancer [ 2 , 3 ]. Inhaled ICS and oral corticosteroids OCS have been used to reduced airway inflammation and acute exacerbations [ 4 — 6 ].
Results showed that ICS use led to a reduced risk of lung cancer [ 7 ]. However, there is a close association between ICS use, pulmonary tuberculosis TB [ 10 ] and pneumonia [ 11 ]. TB [ 12 ] and pneumonia [ 13 ] have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. The NHIRD provide a comprehensive health care information including diagnoses, clinical visits, admission and prescriptions. The multiple databases were used to assess the age at cancer onset, person-month follow-up, death, survival time, and misdiagnosis.
Personal information including ethnicity, family history, lifestyle, occupation, and habits such as smoking and alcohol intake was not available in the NHIRD.