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O box , Kristiansand, Norway. O box , Blindern, Oslo, Norway. The datasets analyzed as part of the current study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. Being involved in bullying is a significant threat to health, and social and psychological well-being; further, such problems can last into adulthood. We specifically sought to study the prevalence of bullying, as well as the associations between both bullying and self-efficacy and HRQOL in a sample of adolescents.
However, more boys than girls reported that they had bullied others. Both being bullied, and bullying others, were associated with lower HRQOL; however, being bullied was associated with the lowest scores. Our findings highlight the importance of targeting self-efficacy beliefs as an intervention strategy to improve GSE and HRQOL in adolescents involved in bullying.
The concept of health-related quality of life HRQOL as a general outcome is of growing interest in the field of public health and is acknowledged as a useful measure of health and well-being in both adult and adolescents populations [ 1 , 2 ]. HRQOL is a multidimensional construct and includes measures of physical symptoms, functional status, psychological and social functioning [ 3 ]. The multidimensionality of health-related quality of life measures HRQOL gives researchers and clinicians information about the impact of a health condition, or the effect of various interventions on different aspects of HRQOL, and serves as a framework for identifying and developing strategies to promote HRQOL [ 2 ].
HRQOL is a positive phenomenon and is therefore particularly relevant within the health promotion perspective, insofar as it focuses on resources rather than problems [ 4 , 5 ]. The concept of self-efficacy has been suggested as one such focus. Previous studies have shown that a high degree of self-efficacy is related to higher self-belief [ 8 ], and that self-efficacy is one of the most important factors contributing to behavior change [ 9 ].
This concept was expanded upon by Schwarzer and Renner, who developed the term general self-efficacy GSE , which is used herein [ 10 ]. Positive associations have been reported between GSE measures and HRQOL among adults, but few studies have examined this in children or adolescents [ 5 ]. A relatively small number of studies do show that being bullied by peers, and bullying others, are both significantly related to lower HRQOL levels [ 5 , 11 — 17 ].